Everyone will have their own way of doing things but for what it’s worth here is my workflow.
I nowadays shoot with a tiny Sony A6300 mirrorless digital “SLR”. After a session, I plug the camera in to the USB port on my desktop PC and copy the image files across using the Import function in Adobe Lightroom Classic. This Classic version has to some extent been superseded by Lightroom CC which is a different product. Instead of organising your photos in folders on your desktop, it uploads them to private folders in the cloud. For me at least, this uses a lot of my data allowance on the internet. So I stick with Classic.
Lightroom organises files into folders and adds the images to a catalogue. As I shoot in RAW format not jpeg, Lightroom automatically processes the RAW file into a recognisable image I can edit or print. It offers a comprehensive set of cutting edge editing features, as good as any on the market. The only thing missing is the ability to use Layer However all editing is non-destructive. The original file is never altered, all the edits and adjustments are written into an instruction file attached to the image file. Whenever that file is opened the accompanying adjustments are applied.
I also use Adobe Photoshop which is a lot more than just a photo editor or processor. To be honest it is overkill for photographers like me but I’ve used it for decades and love it. Above all else it has Layers. This means that you can make adjustments on a layer above the original so the original is untouched. It also allows you to add to the image, the classic swapping a head trick for example.
Photoshop also has available a huge range of third party plugins that add to its processing functionality. Everyone will have their favourites. I’ve used Topazlabs plugins for years. I also use Anthropics Photo Studio as a plugin which comprises hundreds of user created presets to alter the appearance of an image in a click.
These are my preferred programmes and clearly others will have theirs.
Adobe Photoshop and Lightroom: adobe.com